World celebrates the freedom of the Internet

World celebrates the freedom of the InternetInternational organization "Reporters without Borders" (Reporters Without Borders) March 12, 2008 held the first day of free speech on the Internet (Online Free Expression Day) under the patronage of UNESCO, to draw public attention to the issue of free access to the World Wide Web around the world.

"Reporters Without Borders" – an international non-governmental organization for the protection of human rights protected by the freedom of expression around the world. It was founded in Paris (France) in 1985. The task of the organization – to fight against censorship, for the release of the journalists who have suffered because of their professional activities.

Each year the organization publishes its own list of "enemies of the Internet" (Internet Enemies).

On the very first day of free speech on the Internet March 12, 2008, "Reporters Without Borders" inviting people to visit the organization's website to protest against censorship, which some abuse the government, and to demand more rights for Internet users.

"Reporters without Borders" urged to take part in the campaign in nine countries, which, in the opinion of the organization, "pose the greatest risk to the network." Within 24 hours, from 11:00 Paris time (14.00 MSK) on March 12 to 11:00 on March 13, Internet users took part in the "kiberdemonstratsih" that took place in Burma, China, North Korea, Cuba, Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia , Turkmenistan and Vietnam. Was also published another list of "enemies of the Internet."

In 2008, the list of states – "enemies of the Internet" were entered from 15 countries. Among them, Belarus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.

It was also announced that another 11 states are under the supervision of "Reporters without borders". These countries are not sent to jail bloggers and are not actively censor the Internet. However, according to the organization, they are actively trying to limit free speech on the Web. The list includes Tajikistan, Bahrain, Eritrea, Gambia, Jordan, Libya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

In a report published in the Day of the freedom of speech on the Internet in 2012, the organization "Reporters without Borders" called "enemies of the Internet," the 12 countries that in many ways to limit the access of its citizens to the information in the network. The list includes Belarus, Bahrain, Burma, China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.

The report claims that China has stepped up pressure on private Internet companies to force them to work more closely with the government. At the same time, Iran and Vietnam, a wave of arrests of Internet users, the publication of which cause concern among the authorities of those countries.

According to the report, tough action against Internet freedom by the Government of Syria, where for two years in a struggle between the government and the armed opposition, but on the contrary, promotes the activation of Internet users.

In addition to the rating of "enemies of the Internet", human rights activists have compiled a list of "countries that are under surveillance." The list includes Australia, Egypt, Eritrea, France, South Korea, Sri Lanka and others. New countries came to the list in 2012 were India and Kazakhstan.

On the same list in 2010, is Russia. The drafters of the list noted that in Russia, widespread cyber attacks against a number of online resources. Also, "Reporters Without Borders" drew attention to a series of arrests of Russian bloggers and Internet users. Detention, according to human rights activists, were carried out to prevent the discussion of topics related to the political situation.

In the Russian blogosphere and social networks have become a serious public platform for the current government and opposition during two election campaigns – Parliament in December 2011 and presidential in early March 2012. On December 2011, the day of the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation several major online resources, including the site of an independent association of "The Voice" radio station "Echo of Moscow", Slon.Ru, magazines "Big City", The New Times, the election of the project " Antikarusel "were DDoS-attack.

The urgency of the Day freedom of speech on the Internet underscore the demonstration against the law of ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement), which involves tightening supervision over observance of copyright on the Internet and the information technology market. At the end of January 2012 agreement signed by 22 European states.

Opponents of the adoption of ACTA, which include as many European experts, lawyers, journalists and politicians, believe that the program is fraught with great danger to the future of the Internet, freedom of speech and human rights. It contains too vague requirements that can optionally be used to gain control of the company on the Internet. And in the case of adoption of ACTA to keep track of which sites are visited or that person that he's downloaded, do not need permission or the court or the prosecutor.

In addition, the agreement ACTA would allow customs officials to inspect laptops, iPods and phones for illegal content. Largely due to the numerous protests as ordinary Internet users and experts 4 July 2012 the European Parliament has rejected international agreement to combat counterfeiting ACTA.

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