Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

This advanced project shows how to produce a multi – megawatt pulse of electromagnetic energy that can cause irreversible damage to computerized and sensi­tive communication equipment. A nuclear detonation causes such a pulse, which must be countermeasured lo protect electronic devices. This project requires lethal amounts of electrical energy storage and must not be attempted unless in a qualified laboratory environment. Such a device can be used to deactivate

the computer systems in automobiles, avoiding dan­gerous high-speed chases. Sensitive electronic equip­ment can be tested for susceptibility to lightning and potential nuclear detonations.

The project is semidetailed with references made only to the major components. A low-cost, open-air spark switch is shown but will provide only limited results. A gas-filled or isotope doped switch is required for optimum results (see Figure 25-1).

Basic Description

Shockwave generators are capable of producing focused acoustic or electromagnetic energy that can break up objects such as kidney stones and other sim­ilar materials. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) genera­tors can produce pulses of electromagnetic energy that can destroy the sensitive electronics in comput­ers and microprocessors. Destabilized inductive and capacitive (LC) circuits can produce multigigawatt pulses by using an explosive wire disruption switch. These high-power pulses can be coupled into parallel plate transmission lines for EMP hardness testing, parabolic and elliptical antennas, horns, and so on for directional far-field effects.

For example, research is currently being under­taken to develop a system that would disable a car during a dangerous high-speed chase. The trick is generating a high enough power pulse to fry the elec­tronic control processor modules. This would be a lot simpler if the vehicle were covered in plastic or fiber­glass rather than metal. The shielding of the metal body offers a challenge to the researcher developing a practical system. A device could be built to do this, but it would be costly and could produce collateral damage to friendly targets.

Project Objective

The objective here is to generate a high-peak power pulse of electromagnetic energy to test the hardness of sensitive electronic equipment. Specifically, this project explores the use of such a device for disabling vehicles by jamming or destroying computerized con­trol chips. We’ll experiment with disruptive LCR cir­cuits with focused Shockwave capabilities.


The project uses deadly electrical energy that can kill a person instantly if improperly contacted. The high – energy system that will be assembled uses exploding

wires that can create dangerous shrapnel-like effects. A discharge of the system can severely damage nearby computers and other related equipment.


A capacitor (C) is charged from a current source to an energy source over a period of time. Once it reaches a certain voltage corresponding to a certain energy level, it is allowed to discharge quickly into a resonant circuit. A wire now is made to explode, dis­rupting this high-peak current through the circuit inductance. A powerful, undampened wave is now generated at the natural frequency and at the associ­ated harmonics of this resonant circuit. The induc­tance (L) of the resonant circuit may consist of a coil and associated lead inductance, along with the intrin­sic inductance of the capacitor, which is around 20 nanohenries. The capacitor of the circuit determines the energy storage and also has an effect on the reso­nant frequency of the system.

Radiation of the energy pulse can be made via a conductive conic section or a metal, horn-like struc­ture. Some experimenters have used lumped, half­wave elements center-fed by a coil coupled to the coil of the resonant circuit. This half-wave antenna con­sists of two quarter-wave sections tuned to the reso­nant circuit frequency. These are in the form of coils wound with an approximate length of wire equal to a q uarter-wavelength. The antenna has two radiation lobes parallel to its length or broadside. Minimum radiation occurs at points axially located or at its ends, but we have not validated this approach. For example, a gas discharge lamp, such as a household fluorescent lamp, will flash brightly at a distance from the source, indicating a powerful directional pulse of electromagnetic energy.

Our test pulse system produces conservative, multimegawatt electromagnetic pulses (1 megawatt of broadband energy) and is radiated preferably via a conical section antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector of 100 to 300 millimeters in diameter. A 25- X 25-centimeter-square metallic horn, flaring out to 100 centimeters square, will also provide a degree of performance. A.5-microfarad, special. low –

inductance capacitor charges up in about 20 seconds with the ion charger described in Chapter 1, “Anti­gravity Project.” and is modified as shown. Faster charging rales can be obtained by a higher-current system available on special request for more serious research Irom www. amazingl. com.

A high-power radio frequency pulse can be gener­ated where the output of the pulser may also be cou­pled to a full-size, center-fed. half-wave antenna tuned between 1 and 1.5 MHz. The actual length at 1 МН/ is over 150 meters (492 feet) and may be too large for many experiments. However, it is normal­ized for a radiation coefficient of 1, with all other schemes being less. The actual elements may be reduced in length by using tuned quarterwave seo tions consisting of a 75-meter (246-foot) length of wire spaced and wound on 2- to 3-meter pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing. This scheme pro­duces a pulse of low-frequency energy.

Please note, as stated, that the pulse output of this system will cause damage to computers and any devices using microprocessors or similar circuitry up to a considerable distance. Always use caution when testing and using this system—just being close can damage sensitive electronic equipment. Figure 25-2 provides a description of the strategic parts used in our lab-assembled system.


The capacitor (C) used for this type of application must have very low inherent inductance and dis­charge resistance. At the same time, the part must have the energy storage sufficient to produce the nec­essary high-powered pulse at the target frequency. Unfortunately, these two requirements do not go hand in hand. Higher-energy capacitors always will have more inductance than lower-energy units. Another important point is the use of relatively high – discharge voltages (V) to generate high-discharge currents. These values are required to overcome the inherent complex loss impedance of the series induc­tance and resistance of the discharge path.

The capacitor used in our system is.5 mfd at 50,000 volts with a.03-microhenry series inductance. Our tar­get fundamental frequency for the low-power nondis – ruptive circuit is 1 MHz. The system energy is400 joules, as determined by E = Ч2 CV?, with E at 40 Kv.


The inductor can be easily made for a low-frequency radio puIse. The inductance shown as LI is a lumping of all stray connecting leads, the spark switch, the exploding wire disrupter, and the inherent inductance of the capacitor. This inductance resonates at a wide band of frequencies and must be able to handle the high-discharge current pulse (1 j. The value of the lumped value is around.05 to.1 Uh. The conductor sizes must take into effect the high pulse current, ide­ally equal to V X (C/L)b2.This fast current transition wants to flow on the conductor surface due lo the high-frequency skin effect.

You may use an inductor ot several turns for experimenting at Ihe lower frequencies along wilh a coupled antenna. Dimensions are determined by the air inductance formula: L = (10 X D – X N2 )/l, where D is the diameter in centimeters, 1 is the length in centimeters, and N is the number ol turns. A coil from 3 turns of 10 millimeters (.375 inches) of copper tub­ing on a 7.5-cenlimeter (З-inch) diameter spread out lo 15 centimeters (6 inches) will have a calculated inductance of.3 Uh.

Verification of Operation

To confirm that the device works properly, follow these steps:

1. Connect the output to a household 15-watt, 115 VAC fluorescent lamp.

Table 24-1 Fish stunner project parts

Ref. # Qty. Description DB #

Rl, 3 2 IK. ‘A-watt resistor (br-blk-red)

R2 470-ohm, ‘A-watt resistor (yel-pur-br)

R4 10K trimpot (103)

R5 ЮК control poi linear

R6.8 2 10-ohms,1 A-watt (br-blk-blk)

R7 2 1.8K. 3-watt metal-oxtde-seimcomluctor (MOX) resistors, two in a series

for 3600 ohms

Cl 10,000 mfd/ 16-volt electrolytic capacitor axial leads

C2 2.2 mfd/50-voU nonpolarized electrolytic capacitor

C3 .01 mfd/50-voll disk (103)

C5 2.200 mfd/25-volt vertical electrolytic capacitor

C4 3.9 mfd. 350-volt plastic capacitor #3 9M

DI. 2 2 IN914 silicon diodes

D3 LN5408 1 Kv. 3-amp rectifier

D4 Bright-green LED

Q1 1RF450 MOSFET transistor


11 555 DIP timer 1C

Tl 24-volt 4 A with 240-volt primary 60 Hz. reworked per text #1UTR2412R

S1 SPST 3-amp toggle switch

PBUARD 2 ‘/4 X 5 X.1 grid perforated board, cut to size per Figure 24-3

WR20R Ci feet #20 vinvl wires, red

WR20B 6 feet #20 vinvl wires, black

WRBUSS 24 inches #20-inch bus wire

THERMO Thermo pad for mounting under Ql

LUOl 6-32 solder lug

TYEWRAP 2 12-inch heavy-duty tie wraps for holding Tl to frame

FRAME 11.5 X 1.75.063 A1 plate fabricated per Figure 24-5

BUI ‘/«" plastic clamp bushing

SWl I 6-32’/2 Phillips screw

SW3 1 6-32 X l/2-inch nylon screw

NUTl 2 6-32 kep nut

CAP1.2 2 3 ‘/z-inch plastic caps fabricated per Figure 24-7

EN1 10- x 3 ‘/2-inch OD schedule 40 PVC tubing

Connect ihe input to a 12 VDC source or a 4. Connect to the required electrodes and test it

battery capable of supplying 2 amps. out on a target fish. Use as suggested in Figure


Turn on the power and rotate the control, not­ing that the bulb lights and gets brighter as the control is turned clockwise. Also note the out­put indicator lighting.

Subassembly Pretest

To run a test on ihe device, follow these sieps:

1. Turn pots R5 to full counterclockwise (CCW), R4 trimpot to midrange, and SI to off (down position).

2. Connect a 10- to 25-watt, 500-ohm testing power resistor to the output leads. If you have a scope. it is suggested that you connect it to the drain of Ql.

3. Apply a 12-voll DC to the input leads, and turn Si on (to the up position). Adjust R5 full clockwise (CW) and note that the input cur­rent does not exceed 2.5 amps. Adjust trimpot R4 to limit this maximum value with R5 at full CW. Check for wave shapes as shown with R5 at full CW and CCW. Do not operate into the

test resistor for too long as the resistor may overheat.

4. Verify D4 LED lighting when S1 is energized.

Final Rssembly

To complete the assembly, follow these steps:

1. Cut a 10-inch piece of З’/мпсЬ OD schedule 40 PVC tubing for the enclosure (EN1). Rework the 3’/2-ineh plastic end caps by sim­ply poking two small holes for the output leads (CAPl). Cut out the eemer of cap CAP2 by placing it onto a suitable form and remove the center with an x-acto knife using the wall of the form lube as a guide.

2. Retest using a load resistor and verify all the controls before actually using the device. It is a good idea to attach suitable connection clips to the input leads tor battery terminals.

3. Connect the output leads to a suitable probe scheme and study the instructions section of these plans.

4. Place a high-voltage warning label on the enclosure (see Figure 24-7).


Your fish stunner is intended for survey tagging and population evaluation of certain species. The system is designed to operate from a 12-volt battery and draws 3 amps at maximum output. The unit is shock circuit protected and utilizes our highly efficient induction charging and switching to obtain the high – peak currents necessary for the high conductivity often found in brackish waters. A power adjuster con­trols the duration of the pulse, therefore controlling the current flowing in the water. The pulse repetition rate is factory set at 25 pulses per second. The ratio of the pulse’s “on” to “off” time is controlled by the power adjuster control. The output voltage with a load of 500 ohms is over 300 volts at its peak at a cor­responding current of over half an amp. No load volt­age rises to a high value and open-circuit operation must be avoided. Five hundred ohms correspond to a water resistance representing a typical freshwater pond found in southern New Hampshire.

At these parameters, the power dissipated into the water is around 25 watts and is effective up to 10 feet from the boat.

The effectiveness of the system is dependent on the following:

• Is the target fish within the area?

• Are the fish bottom dwellers?

• The fish size. Larger fish are easier to stun than the smaller ones.

• The water temperature may be too cold. This is important for proper operation.

Subassembly Pretest

Figure 24-7 Fully assembled unit

Intended for bottom fish such as catfish.

Preferred Method

Subassembly Pretest

May not work that well for
scale fish Water
temperature should be

above 70 F for best



Subassembly Pretest

Subassembly Pretest

• Use of ihe correct dragline, chains, wire mesh, and weights for the particular fish. Several examples are shown in Figure 24-8.

Please nole that the system utilizes a floating out­put, which means you do not have to use the electri­

Separate drag leads about 3 to 10 feet.

Will depend on water properties. Experiment for best results.

The area between the electrodes is where the fish will be affected Most fish will swim towards the positive electrode where as they get closer they become stupefied and stunned The above sketch shows the use of the floating output approach where no ground is required either to the boat or externally

You may ground the negative lead using the boat or motor as the contact now requiring only the use of one drag line electrode.

Chains must be allowed to drag on bottom

A multidrag line may be made by using a Insulated boom and eyeboltsto attach the chains. Electrical contact can now be made to each chain by the two output leads creating an electnc field between the chains Any fish between the chains will experience the effect. A tether bndle is made from nylon гора with voltage lead taped or tie wrapped to secure Note thet thle approach

should not be used in waters with a lot of bottom debris that can snag the device.

Boom may be mounted to transom using longer nylon father tines as shown in preferred method

An electrified survey is made by attaching 2 conductive loopa mounted at the ends of a wooden boom piece Our test model was made as shown with a separation of approx 3 feet between loops. One loop is connected to the positive output lead and the other to the negative There is no grounding U6ed as current must only flow between the loops The hendte was made from a 6-foot length of 1 x 3 pine with 4 screws attaching It to the boom section The bare wire loops were press-fitted into pre-drilled holes through the boom whare they ware epoxied in place. We used yfe" copper tube With approx 16“ diameter for our model as it is reasonably self-supporting and can be easily reformed if accidentally bent.

The voltage feed wires can also be slid into the holes for the loopa or can be attached to the loopa by soldenng or using a wi cismp The voltage leads are run up along the sides of the handle where they are connected to the shocker We actually mounted the shocker and 8 D cell betteries to the handle, making a completely self-contained system The voltage leads are tapad or clamped Into place.

cal system ot the boat or the boat itself as an elec­trode. If it is metal, you may choose to do this for cer­tain applications. This is simply done by connecting the negative output lead to the -12 VDC input or craft common, forcing a grounded return.

Figure 2Ч-В Electric fishing probes

A floating output provides a certain degree of safety for the operator because he or she must make actual contact with both output leads simultaneously to get shocked. If you now ground one of the output leads, it is possible to get shocked just by being in water that may be inside the boat and making acci­dental contact with only one of the output leads.

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project

This usel’ul project is intended used for driving worms out of the ground or stunning fish while in their normal environment. This stupefying effect allows tagging and relocating as the fish float to the surface. It is best to check before trying this in public waters, as many states do not allow “electric fishing” except by those qualified.

The device (see Figure 24-1) must be used with caution as improper use can cause electric shock.

The finished project should have a danger label affixed to it.

Expcct to spend 550 to $100 for this outdoor proj­ect. Most parts arc readily available, and any special­ized parts are obtainable through www. amazingl. com. The parts for this project are listed in Table 24-1

General Description

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project

As shown in Figure 24-2. this project generates an adjustable 1 to 2 joules of 600-volt pulses at a 30- reps-per-second rate. The output of the circuit is elec­trically floating (no ground reference) to minimize but not totally eliminate a dangerous shock potential. The output leads are intended to be connected to probes or drag chains, as shown in the operating instructions.

The device is housed in a З-inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube with splash-proof plastic end caps. The front cap retains the control panel with power switch (Si), pulse energy pot (R5). light-emitting diode (LED) power on the indicator, and the input power leads. The rear cap has a passage hole for exiting the output leads. This arrangement helps protect the device from moisture but in no way makes the unit submersible.

Circuit Description

The circuit utilizes inductive charging similar to that used in the ignition systems of older automobiles. The primary winding of the transformer Tl current charges through metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) switch Ql. The current ramps up to a value determined by і = Et/L, where E equals the 12 volts-direct current (VDC) input, L the inductance of the Tl primary, and t the “on” time of switch Ql. The pulse energy is now equal to Li2/2 because it is being controlled by the “on" time as determined by pot R5.

Transformer Tl requires cutting in an air gap nec­essary to store the inductive energy because the core itself would saturate, making Tl useless.

Tinier II is wired as a stable pulse generator with a fixed frequency determined by the total value of pot R5 and trimpot R4, along with timing capacitor C2.

Trimpot R4 is used to set the maximum core charging time range of R5. Resistor R6 and capacitor C5 decouple the operating voltage (Vc) to timer П from the main 12 VDC. LED D4, along with the current – limit resistor, indicate when power switch SI is on.

Construction Steps

To begin assembly, follow these steps:

1. Lay out and identify all parts and pieces, checking them with the parts list. Note that certain parts may sometimes vary in value. This is acceptable as all components are 10 to 20 percent tolerant unless otherwise noted.

2. Create the PBl assembly board at 2Ча X 5 inches from a piece of.1 X Л vector board. Note that it is a good idea to duplicate the placement of the perforated holes as shown in Figures 24-3 and 24-4. This makes placement of the components identical lo what is shown.

3. Assemble the board as shown, inserting the components into the board holes. Proceed from right to left, attempting to obtain the lay­out as shown. Dashed lines indicate connec­tion runs on the underside of the board.

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project


Note that certain leads of the actual compo­nents will be used for connecting points and circuit runs. Do not cut or trim them at this time. It is best to temporarily fold the leads over to secure the individual parts from falling out of the board holes for now.

4. Rework the Tl transformer as shown in Fig­ure 24-4.

5. Put the frame assembly (FRAME) together, as shown in Figure 24-5. You may want to trial-fit the components before actually fabri­cating.

6. Mount the components to the frame as shown in Figure 24-6, using TYE1 wraps to secure Tl. Note the mounting of Ql, using a thermo pad and nylon screw. The large capacitor Cl is mounted behind the assembly board with the ground side attached to the common ground­ing lug LUG I.

7. Preconnect all the leads as shown in Figure

24- 4. Note that the wires intended for input and output leads are 3 to 4 feet in length. They may be longer or shorter.

8. Check the wiring for any potential shorts, wire bridge shorts, poor solder joints, the correct­ness of the components, and the position and orientation of semiconductors and capacitors.

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project

Figure 2Ч-Ч Final wiring showing transformer rework

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project

View side m

You may use these drawings as templates for fabncatmg the frame section Note lo verify hole dimensions for components used.

Figure 24-5 Construction of the frame assembly template

Fish Stunning and LLIormer Project

Figure 24-6 Isometric overall view

Fabrication and Mechanical Assembly

To begin the assembly of the device’s machinery, fol­low these steps:

1. It is assumed the power board as outlined is properly operating. Check for the absence of

corona in the high-voltage section. Corona dope is a coating that reduces elcctrical leak­age. Remove all sharp points and insulate with corona dope and so on.

Take a window screen and place it Hush against the objective end of the image lube. TUB 1. with a piece of clear scotch tape.

Secure the tube on the bench via modeling clay and temporarily connect it to the leads from the power board, as shown in Figure

23- 2. Observe the proper clearance of the leads and components. Darken the room and place a source of infrared filler light pointing toward the tube. (Use a flashlight preferably with an IR filter.) Note the tube glowing greenish and an image of the screen appearing either sharp or blurred. If the image is good and sharp, you are in luck. You may further improve the focusing by adding the 22- megohm resistors as shown in Figure 23-2.

This is usually noi necessary.

Fabricate EN1 from a 7-inch length of 2 Ъ inch ID schedule 40 PVC tubing. Note the hole adjaccnt to the HA 1 handle for feeding high-voltage wires to the tube from the power

board and */4-20 threaded holes are dimen­sioned in Figure 23-4 for securing and center­ing the image tube. These holes are located on a 120-degree radius.

4. Fabricate the HA1 handle from an 8-inch length of 1 ‘/2-inch ID schedule 40 PVC tubing. The tube must be shaped and fitted where it abuts to the EN1 main enclosure.

5. Fabricate the BRK 1 and 2 brackets from a half-inch-wide strip of 22-gauge aluminum as shown. Note the holes for #6 X ‘/4 sheet metal screws for securing the assembly together.

6. Fabricate TUB 1 from a 3 ‘/2-inch length of 2-inch ID schedule 40 PVC tubing for the objective lens. Note this is only 2 inches long when using the optional optics and“C orT” mount adapter fitting.

7. In order for TUB 1 to telescope into the main enclosure EN1, suitable cylindrical shims, САР2 and CAP3,must be fabricated. These are the 2 %-inch plastic caps. CAP2 has its end removed by cutting out the center using the wall of tubing as a guide for the knife. CAP3 has a smaller section cut out for LENSl. This method is cheap and works reasonably well. You obviously could substitute the pieces with properly fitted parts fabricated from alu­minum or plastic if you desire. This approach is more professional looking but can be much more costly.

8. The lens shown is a simple, uncorrected con­vex that is adequate for most infrared source viewing. It is not a quality viewing lens such as the optional 50 mm wide-angle or 75 mm tele­photo with the С mount threads. When using this lens, you should either create or purchase an adapter ring that will adapt to the lens threads and fit snugly into the enclosure. See CMT1.

9 The 1R16 image tube has preconnected leads The negative short lead attached to the objective end must have a 10-inch lead spliced to it. Insert the lube partway into the enclosure and snake the leads through the access hole. Position the tube and gently screw in the retaining screws by hand lo secure and center it.

10. Connect the leads from the tube to the power board as shown.

LI. lnscri the power board into the HAl handle. You will have to determine the access hole and drill for the switch Si once the board is secured in its final position. Wires should be long enough for the complete removal of the assembly when the handle is secured in place via the BRKI bracket. This allows any prelimi­nary adjustment or service. Leads may be shortened once proper operation is verified. Connect the battery to the power board and energize switch SI. If you did your homework, you will not have to readjust the focus taps or divider values. Once the operation is verified, check for any excessive corona and eliminate it. Position the board to switch SI adjacent to the access hole in the handle. It may be neces­sary to further secure the board in place via foam rubber pieces, a room temperature vul­canizing (RTV) adhesive, and so on. Slide a flexible rubber membrane over the access hole and insert the battery and cap САРІ.

12. Finally, assemble everything as shown in Fig­ure 23-5 and mount the infrared filtered flash­light. You will have to seal any light leaks using plumbers’ “monkey dung” or coax seal.

13. Adjust the objective and Ihen Ihe eyepiece for the clearest image.

Special Notes

The unit is shown with a built-in infrared source con­sisting of a common, everyday two-cell flashlight fit­ted with a special infrared filter. Any visible light leaks musl be sealed with electrician’s gunk, coax seal, or black liquid rubber.

This approach allows total flexibility in viewing sources not requiring infrared illumination as the light need not be energized or may even be removed. The light source may also be intensified by replacing the two D cells with an eight AA cell NiCad pack providing approximately 9 volts. A suitable lamp may be substituted, providing several times more illumi­nation. The lamp and batlery life will be greatly

Fabrication and Mechanical Assembly

Flashlight with infrared filter, sealed for light leaks


Note top tube positioning screws are cut flush when mounting integrated illuminator.

See step 13

Eyepiece can be a short focal-length magnifying lens

Optional rubber membrane for switch cover allowing activation

Fabrication and Mechanical Assembly

Figure 23-5 Final view

reduced as this approach is only intended for inter­mittent use. Note the now available halogen lamps are far more intense and make excellent infrared sources.

Longer-range viewing may be accomplished by using other, more intense sources such as higher – powered lights, auto headlamps, and so on. These must be fitted with the proper filters to be usable. A range of several hundred meters may be possible with these higher-powered sources. A source capable of allowing viewing from up to 500 feet is referenced in the project parts list.

Obtaining maximum performance and range from the system may require the optional lens system specified. The viewing of externally illuminated infrared sources will not require the integral infrared source.

You will note that this device is excellent for view­ing the output of most solid-state, gallium arsenide laser systems, LEDs, or any other source of infrared energy in the 9000 A spectrum. No internal infrared source is necessary when viewing these actual sources.

Table 23-1 5ee-in-the-dark prolECt

Ref. ft





1.5K, ‘/■’ – watt resistor (br-gr-red)


15K, ’/-a – wait resistor (br-gr-or)


10 m/25-voIt electrical vertical capacitor (blue or green can)


.047 m/50-volt plastic capacitor (473)


47 m/100-volt plastic capacitor (474)



270 pfd/3 Kv plastic disk capacitors



6 Kv. КЮ-nanosecond high-voltage avalanche diodes


MJE3055 NPN TO 220 case transistor


Special transformer info #28K077



Pushbutton switch


5Чі-> 1 Чг – inch perforated board wilh.1 X.1 grid


Snap battery clip



24-inch length of #22 vinyl hookup wire


12-inch. 2D Kv silicon wire


Image converter tuhe



8- X 2 ’/p – inch schedule 40 gray PVC lube, created as shown


3 Чг – inch length X 2-inch ID schedule 40 gray PVC



9- X Чг – inch-thin aluminum strip as shown


2-inch plastic cap for handle



2 3/« – inch plaslic cap as shown


45 x 63 double convex glass lens

SWl, 2


4* -20 X I-inch nylon screws



#6 X 4* – inch sheet metal screws

Optional parts





Prefabricated С mount adapter for EN1 enclosure


Small eyepiece


6-inch glass infrared filter. 99.99 percent dark, for 0 beam light


200.000-candle-power infrared illuminator invisible to the naked eye, at 12 VDC