Negative Ion Information

fn the last two decades, a medical controversy has evolved periaining to the beneficial effects of these minute electrical particles. As with any device that appears to affect people in a beneficial sense, there are those who sensationalize and exaggerate these claims as a cure for all ailments and ills. Such people manufacture and market these devices under false pretenses and consequently give the products a bad name. The Food and Drug Administration now steps in on these claims and the product, along with any beneficial facets, goes down ihe tubes.

People are affected by negative ions from the property of these particlcs to increase the rate of activity by cilia (whose property is to keep the tra­chea clean from foreign objects), thus enhancing oxy­gen intake and increasing the flow of mucous. This property neutralizes the effects of cigarette smoking, which slows down this activity of the cilia. Hay fever and bronchial asthma victims arc greatly relieved by these particles. Burns and surgery patients are relieved of pain and heal faster. Tiredness, lethargy, and a general feeling of fatigue are replaced by a sense of well-being and renewed energy. Negative ions destroy bacteria and purify the air with country air freshness. They cheer people up by decreasing the serotonin content of the blood. As can be seen in countless articles and technical writings, negative ions are a benefit to man and his environment.

Negative ions occur naturally from static electric­ity, certain kinds of wind, waterfalls, crashing surf, cos­mic radiation, radioactivity, and ultraviolet radiation. Positive ions are also produced from some of the pre­vious phenomena and usually neutralize each other out as a natural statistical occurrence. However, many man-made objects and devices have a tendency to neutralize the negative ions, thus leaving an abun­dance of positive ions, which create sluggishness and most of the opposite physiological effects of its nega­tive counterpart.

One method of producing negative ions is obtain­ing a radioactive source rich in Beta radiations (elec­trons). Alpha and gamma emissions from this source produce positive ions that are neutralized electrically. The resulting negative ions are electrostatically directed to the output exit of the device and are fur­ther dispersed by the action of a fan (this method has recently come under attack by the Bureau of Radio­logical Health and Welfare) for the use of tritium or other radioactive salts. This approach appears to be the most hazardous one according to the product consumer safety people.

A more accepted method is to place a small tuft of stainless steel wool as the ion emitter at the output terminal of a negative high-voltage DC power supply. The hair-like property of the stainless steel wool allows ions to be produced at a relatively low voltage yet with reduced ozone output. Ions are produced by the leakage of the particles charging air molecules in the immediate vicinity of the steel wool emitter. The unit should be operated below 15 Kv as too much voltage can produce substantial amounts of ozone that can mask the beneficial effects of the increased ions obtained.

5pecial Notes

The ion emitter plays an important function in the proper operation of this unit for the particular appli­cation. It is suggested that you use a small, sharp, stainless steel needle for starters.

The average current is about 500 microamps and can be considered constant for most loads. It charges objects of an electrical capacitance (C) to a voltage by the following formula: V = it/с. where t equals th( time in seconds and с equals the capacitor of the object in farads. The average human body usually equates out to 10 to 20 picofarads (pfd). Objects of a larger capacity could mathematically be charged up to dangerous energy amounts if they were well insulated. Consequently, this must be taken into consideration.

Here’s an example. An object of a capacity equal to.001 mfd, insulated up to 25,000 volts, would charge up to near this value in approximately Уз of a second. This should equate out to.2 joules and can result in a painful electric shock, as anyone knows who has gotten across a charged capacitor.

An interesting phenomenon is that a human body on a dry day can accumulate a sufficient charge to cause a neon or fluorescent lamp to flash reasonably brilliantly when contact is made with a grounded object.

Table 22-1 Ian

ray and charge gun project parts list

Ref #

Qty.

Description

DB#

Rl

1 OK trimpot vertical

R2.4

2

10-ohm. 4a – watt resistor (br-blk-blk)

R3.5.K.9

4

IK, ‘A – wall resistor (br-blk-red)

R7

4

10-megohm. 1-watt resistor (br-blk-bl)

R10/SI

10K pot and switch

Cl

100 mfd/25-volt vertical eleelroradial leads

C2

.0022 mtd/50-volt green plastic cap (222)

C3.8

2

.01 mfd/50-voll disk (103)

C4

1000 mfd/25-volt vertical electrolytic capacitor

С20а-л

20

500 pfd. 10 Kv ccramic disk cap

tfSOQP/lUKY

C6

.22 ml’d/250-voll metallized polypropylene

C9

1 mfd. 25-volt vertical electro cap.

C7

.1 mfd. 50-volt cap

D20a-n

20

If) Kv. 5-mrlliampcrc avalanche diodes

#VG|6

D3.4

2

1N9I4 silicon diodes

Dll

1

PKL15 15-volt transient suppressor

D12

1 N4937 last-switching 1 Kv diode

01

1RF540 mcieil-uAidt-bemicitndui lot field efjed ігапмнаг (MOSFET) 10220

11.2

555 DIP timer

11

Mini-switching translormer.7 Kv. lOnulliampere

#IU28Kt)89

LI

1

fi Uh inductor: see text on assembly

#1U6UH

C’L I

Battery clip #22 with 12-inch leads

Bill

Fight AA cell battery pack

PBl

Pushbutton switch (normal open)

PE RH BOARD

5 x 2.9 .1 grid perforated board: cui lo size per Figure 22-3

PCGRA

Optional PCB

# PCGRA

TOLY BOARD

10 x 2.9 * .063 polycarbonate (Lexan) plastic

WR2UR

12 inches

#20 vinyl red wire for positive input

WR20B

12 inches

#20 vinyl black wire for negative input

WR20G

12 inches

#20 vinyl green wire lor output ground to craft return

WR20BUSS

12 inches

#20 hus wire for light leads

WR24BUSS

12 inches

#24 hus wire for light leads

SCRWl

5

#6 ■ ‘s sheel metal screws

SW1/NU1

J

#6-32 * ‘/2-inch scrcws and nuts

HSINK

1.5- v l-inch.063 AL plate fabricated as per Figure 22-4

LUG6

#6 aluminum block lug

LUG25

‘ 4-inch ring lug

CLIP

Small alligator clip, duckbill type

EN1

15 v 2 L OD v ■/* wall PVC or clear plastic tube

HAl

*♦- * 1 ‘".—inch OD PVC schedule 40 lube

BRKl

It) x.035 aluminum strip fabricated as shown

CAP1.2

2

Г j – inch plastic caps fabricated as shown with holes

САРЧ

1 7/.^inch plastic cap

Oplional items

Bl-8

8

AA alkaline cells. 1 volts

NEEDLE

Stainless steel

CARBONFIB

Carbon fiber hair lor high-output emitters

#CARBF1B

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