Category Archives: Electronic Gadgets for the Evil Genius BOB IANNINI

Testing Steps

The following steps are for testing out what you’ve built:

1. Preset trimpot R1 to midrange and RIO to full clockwise (CW). Set the spark gap to 1 to 1 ]/4 inches, as shown in Figure 1-9.

2. Obtain a 25-megohm, 20-watt high-voltage resistor. You can make one by connecting 25

1- meg, 1-watt resisiors in a scries and sleeving them into a plastic lube. Seal the ends with sil­icon rubber.

3. Obtain a 12-volt, DC, 3-amp puwer cunverter or a 12-volt, 4-amp rechargeable battery.

4. Connect up the input to the power converter and output to the 25-meg load resistor. Con­nect an oscilliscope set to read 100 volts and a sweep time of 5 usees to drain pin of Ql for viewing the signal wave shape as R1 is adjusted.

5. Apply power and quickly adjust R1 to the wave shape shown in Figure 1-2. The spark gap may fire intermittently and should be respaced just to the point of triggering. This is usually between 25 to 30 Kv.

6. Rotate RIO counterclockwise (CCW) and note the input current smoothly dropping almost to zero. This control varies the ratio of off to on time and nicely controls the system current to the lifter craft emitters.

This “off and on" switching provides a varying, realistic throbbing sound as the craft lifts and pro­duces more thrust.

Note: If you have access to a high-voltage probe meter, such as a B&K HV44, it will be possible to measure the direct output, noting 20 to 30 Kv across the 25-meg load resistor. This equates out to over 30 watts. You will see a smooth change in output as R10 is varied.

Note: The spark gap spacing adjustment and the spacing between the craft ion emitter wires and col­lectors are strongly dependent on one another. Fine – tune the system by setting the gap on the threshold of firing before the craft emitter wire starts to break down. Do not exceed 14i inches (38 mm).

The primary objective of the protective spark gap is to prevent damage to the craft as well as to the power supply circuit. Never allow a continuous breakdown to occur, as damage to the circuit may

result.

You may now proceed to the craft assembly sec­tion. Figure 1-11 shows the assembly of a suggested launching pad.

The following information provides a step-by-step description of the methods and procedures involved with building a prototype electrokinetic propulsion device that is easily powered by the devicc shown in these plans. If properly constructed, this device will generate enough force to levitate itself from a resting surface.

1. Obtain the required materials:

• 2 mm by 6 mm balsa wood strips

• 30-gauge enameled copper magnet wire for high-voltage power leads

• 42- to 44-gauge stainless steel wire (for

lifter corona wire on the parts list)

• Aluminum foil

• One tube of superglue or a hot-glue gun

• Sewing thread

• One hobby knife

• One Scotch brand tape roll

2. Cut the balsa support struts (see Figure 1 -12) First, cut the balsa strips in half to create 2- millimeter by 3-millimeter strips. Cut these into two sets: one set of three struts 20 cen­timeters in length, and a second set of two struts 11 centimeters in length. Bevel the edges of each of the 20-centimeter struts to allow them to be glued later at an angle to the

11- centimeter struts. The beveling should be about 30 degrees in slope, and remember to bevel both ends on the same side of the balsa face.

3. Assemble the balsa struts (see Figure 1-13). Mark each of the 11-centimeter stiuts at the top (to help you remember which end is up)

CAUTION I Minor electric shocks are possible by charge accumlation to the body. You may want to insulate switches and controls

Suggested launch pad is made from an 18" equilateral triangle of thin aluminum grounded to HV return. You may also use four equal-sized triangles attached together.

A metal launch pod provides far better peiformance.

Testing Steps

Tether point using thread

Testing Steps

Testing Steps

and again at a mark 4 centimeters from the bottom. Sparingly use superglue to attach each of the three vertical 11-centimeter struts to a 20-centimeter horizontal strut as shown in the figure. In the figure, the beveled ends of the 20-centimeter struts have been glued at

right angles at the 4-centimeter mark on the vertical struts.

4. Complete the chassis assembly (see Figure 1- 14). Similar to the previous step, glue together the three pieces of the lifter frame using

Testing Steps

Figure 1-14 Assembled chassis frame

superglue. Glue the unconnected ends of the 20-centimeter struts to the other side of the 4- centimeter mark you created on the vertical strut. Ensure that the ends of the lifter line up as shown in the figure.

Cut an aluminum foil strip (see Figure 1-15). Cut a strip of aluminum foil 5 centimeters wide and approximately 1 meter in length. This foil strip will be used to surround the bottom part of the lifter.

Fold the foil around the chassis (see Figure 1- 16). Put glue on the 20-centimeter strip and hold it on the foil until it sets. Notice in the figure how the foil is even with the bottom of the vertical struts. If done correctly, you should have an extra 1 centimeter of foil above the 20-centimeter balsa horizontal strut. Roll the lifter chassis down the length of the foil, gluing each side of the chassis as you go. You must have an extra 1-centimeter lip above the horizontal struts to reduce ion leakage.

7. Fold down the foil edges (see Figure 1-17).

Cut the corners around the top of the 1 – cen­timeter lip above the horizontal struts and fold the foil over the top of the strut for each of the three lifter sides. Use a piece of Scotch tape cut in half lengthwise to hold the folded corners as close to the inside of the foil as pos­sible and reduce leakage.

8. Attach the ground wire to the foil (see Figure 1-18). Poke a small hole through the foil skirt and run the ground wire through it, as shown in the figure. The hole should be behind the strut so that the wire is supported by it. Make sure to strip the ground wire of its enamel coating before you connect it. The ground wire must have a section of bare copper to contact the foil in order to work. Give your­self about two extra feet of wire off the lifter to connect it to your power supply’s ground.

9. Attach the corona wire (see Figure 1-19). Approximately 3 centimeters up from the top of the foil, or about 2 centimeters from the

Testing Steps

Figure 1-15 Cutting of alumunum foil strip

Testing Steps

Figure 1-16 Gluing of alumunum strip to frame

Testing Steps

Figure 1-17 Folding over the aluminum foil edges

Figure 1-18 Connection of the ground feed wire

Testing Steps

Testing Steps

Figure 1-19 Attaching and connecting of the corona ion emitter wire

top of the vertical support struts, run a length of 4(J-gauge, 2.8-millimter corona wire around all three vertical struts and connect it to the 30-gauge power supply wire to be connected to the power supply. Make sure to loop the wire around each of the vertical struts at least once to ensure that they stay in place, and when you come back to the first vertical strut, tie the wire off so that the corona wire runs around the entire frame of the lifter.

If you have correctly followed the steps, you should have a lifter prototype identical to the one shown in Figure 1-20. Use the Testing Guide docu­ment to assist you with testing the lifter, and use the Troubleshooting document if you encounter prob­lems while testing.

Notes

Attaching the corona wire can be difficult to hold in place on the vertical struts, especially because the wire is so thin. One method is to use a tiny dab of hot glue to keep the wire in place at each post, thereby freeing your hands to wrap the wire around the next post.

Another way to hold the wire in place is to wrap it around the 30-gauge power-lead wire and then wrap the tip of the 30-gauge wire around the vertical strut. Using this method you can attach both wires to each other and the vertical post at the same time. Ensure that the tip of the 30-gauge wire is completely stripped of enamel before wrapping the corona wire around it.

Board Assembly Steps

To assemble the board, follow these steps:

1. Lay out and identify all the parts and pieces. Verify the separate resistors with the parts list, as they have a color code to determine their value. Colors are indicated on the parts list.

2. Fabricate a piece of.1-inch grid perforated board to a size of 7.2 X 2.6 inches. Locate and drill holes as shown in Figure 1-3. An optional PCB is available from Information Unlimited.

3. Fabricate the metal heat sink for Ql from a piece of.063-inch aluminum at 1.5 X.75 inches, as shown in Figure 1-4.

4. Assemble LI as shown in Figure 1-4.

5. If you are building from a perforated board, insert components starting in the lower left – hand corner, as shown in Figure 1-5 and 1-6. Pay attention to the polarity of the capacitors with polarity signs and all semiconductors. Route leads of components as shown and sol­der as you go, cutting away unused wires. Use certain leads as the wire runs or use pieces of the included #22 bus wire. Follow the dashed lines on the assembly drawing as these indi­cate connection runs on the underside of the assembly board. The heavy dashed lines indi – cate the use of thicker #20 bus wire, as this is a high-current discharge path and common ground connections. See Figures l-7a and l-7b for an expanded view.

6. Attach the external leads as shown. Figure 1-6 shows the construction of the safety spark gap made from pieces of #20 bus wire. This pre­vents high voltages from damaging circuit components when using light or no load con­nections. The circuit is not designed to operate with continual discharging and indicates a fault or too light of a load if it continually fires. See Figures l-7a and l-7b for an expanded view.

7. Double-check the accuracy of the wiring and the quality of the solder joints. Avoid wire

Board Assembly Steps

The assembly board is in two sections attached together by two outer 6-32 nylon screws and nuts. The middle hole is used to fasten the entire assembly to the base of the endosure.

The circuit section is 4.8” x 2.9" .1 x.1 perforeted board. The high-voltage Plexiglas section is 3.6 X 2.9" .063 thickness. Drill eight.063" holes in the perforated section and eleven in the Plexiglas section located as shown.

Drill the three.125" holes in both sections for attaching together.

Drill and drag the.125" slot as shown. This cutout and the enlarged holes are for mounting transformer T1 Using the optionally available printed circuit board will still require fabrication of the Plexiglas board Hole diameters are not critical.

Always use the lower t eft-hand corner of perf board for position reference.

Figure 1-3 Driver board fabrication

Board Assembly Steps

for both sides

Heatsink bracket assembly

HSINK Bracket fabricated as per step 3 from 1/16" aluminium piece. Note hole for attaching tab of Q1.

Board Assembly Steps

Board Assembly Steps

Figure 1-4 LI current feed inductor and heatsink bracket

Board Assembly Steps

Note polarity of C1.C4.C9. D3.D4, D12, and D20A-D20J Note position of 11.12. Q1

Fi g и ге I – 5 Parts iden tifi cat ion

bridges, shorts, and close proximity to other circuit components. If a wire bridge is neces­sary, sleeve some insulation onto the lead to avoid any potential shorts.

8. Fabricate a channel from a piece of ‘/іь-inch plastic material. Add it to the assembly and secure it at its comers using silicon rubber adhesive. You may also enclose it in a suitable plastic box as shown in Figures 1-8 and 1 -9. Figure 1-10 shows the simplified channel enclosure that does not include the meter M1.

Thick dashed lines are direct connection runs beneath board of #20 bus wire (WR20BUSS) and are extended for the spark switch electrodes

Board Assembly Steps

See Figures i-7a and i-7b for enlarged views of this figure.

Figure I-Б Wiring connections and external leads

Board Assembly Steps

Figure l-7a Enlarged view of wiring

Cut and paste 7a and 7b together

Board Assembly Steps

Figure l~7b Enlarged view of wiring

Board Assembly Steps

Figure 1-8 Final assembly showing metered enclosure

Board Assembly Steps

Detail ol end viewing safety vottage breakdown set to 25 to 30 Kv This scheme helps protect lifter craft and power supply from dangerous over-voftage breakdown

Figure 1-9 Final isometric view

Board Assembly Steps

The lower-cost GRA10 is a modular approach where the electronics assembly is secured into a ptastic channel CH1. Input and output leads are the same and R1 is a smaJI trimpot.

Assembly is secured via the center nylon screw

Figure 1-10 Alternate GRAlO assembly module

Rbout the Ruthor

Bob lannini runs Information Unlimited, a firm dedicated to the experimenter and tech­nology enthusiast. Founded in 1974, the company holds many patents, ranging from weapons advances to children’s toys. Mr. Iannini’s 1983 Build Your Own Laser, Phaser, Ion Ray Cun & Other Working Space-Age Projects, now out of print, remains a popular source for electronics hobbyists.

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An antigravity project provides a means of levitating an object purely by electrical forces (see Figure 1-1). Motors, fans, jets, or magnets are not used. A propul­sive thrust is created by the reactionary forces of an ion wind. This phenomenon is an excellent means for future transportation once a few engineering prob­lems arc solved, and a vehicle could operate in an almost frictionless environment.

Construction requires minimal electronic experi­ence in building the electronics, as well as patience with a steady hand in constructing the craft. The proj­ect is presented into two sections, the ion power sup­ply and the craft. Expect to spend between $25 to $50 for parts, noting many are available through Informa­tion Unlimited (www. amazingl. com).The complete parts list is at the end of the chapter as Table 1-1.

Theory of Operation

The following equations show motion obtained via the reactionary effcct of a volume of air acceleratcd by electric charges. A thin, positively charged emitter wire is located in a charge that is in proximity to a smooth, attracting surface. Air particles are now charged in proximity to this thin emitter wire and are attracted to the negative space charge around the smooth surface. It appears that maximum thrust (or effect) requires moving as much air mass as fast as

possible in a given amount of time, expressed as the following:

Thrust = mv/t m = mass of air v = velocity t = time

The power input to produce this movement is related to (‘/2/mv2)/t energy in joules.

If we now define system efficiency as the ratio of “power out” to “power in.” we obtain

Eff – mv/t x 1/2 mv2/t = 2/v

Efficiency now becomes inversely proportional to the velocity of the air and therefore suggests the uti­lization of large masses or volumes at low velocities to be efficient. This is not to say that the effect on the maximum lifting capability follows these same guide­lines.

It is known that air molecules and ions are elastic on impact at low velocities. High velocities have a tendency to cause molecular disassociation with accompanying secondary ionization.

This secondary ionization will cause a net decrease in the reactionary effect or thrust due to a reversal of direction of the now oppositely charged particles. The objective now becomes to move as much mass as possible at a low velocity or energy where the maxi­mum amount of elastic collision takes place with a

Figure 1-1 Antigravity lifter in flight

minimum of destructive molecular disassociation and secondary ionization.

Your lifter requires a high DC voltage at a rela­tively low current. The driver power supply schematic is shown in Figure 1-2. It generates 30,000 volts at a load current of 1 milliampere (ma).This is usually suf – Ш ficient to power lifters up to 36 inches per side when properly constructed using up to lV2-inch emitter wire spacing. It easily powers the 8-inch unit shown in these instructions. Even though the current is low, improper contact can result in a harmless yet painful shock.

The output voltage of the driver is obtained using a Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier with four to five stages of multiplication. Note this method of obtain­ing high voltages was used in the first atom smasher ushering in the nuclear age! This multiplier section requires a high-voltage/frequency source for input Input is supplied by a transformer (Tl) producing 6 to 8 kilovolts (Kv) at approximately 30 kilohertz (kHz). You will note that this transformer is a proprietary design owned by Information Unlimited. The part is small and lightweight for the power produced.

The primary part of Tl is current driven through an inductor (LI) and is switched at the desired fre­quency by a field-effect transistor (FET) switch (Ql). The capacitor (C6) is resonated with the primary of Tl and zero voltage switches when the frequency is properly adjusted. (This mode of operation is very similar to class E operation.) The timing of the drive pulses to Ql is therefore critical to obtain optimum operation.

The drive pulses are generated by a 555 timer cir­cuit (II) connected as an astable multivibrator with a

repetition rate determined by the setting of the trim – pot (Rl) and a fixed-value timing capacitor (C2).

II is now turned on and off by a second timer (12). This timer operates at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz but has an adjustable “duty cycle” (the ratio of the on to off time) determined by the setting of the control pot (R10). II is now gated on and off with this con­trolled pulse providing an adjustment of output power.

An over-voltage protection spark gap is placed across the output and is easily set to break down at 20 to 30 Kv. This usually is sufficient for lifters having a 2- to 3-centimeter separation between the emitter wire and the collector skirts. Even though the output is short circuit protected against continuous overload, constant hard discharging of the output can cause damage and must be limited. A pulse current resistor (R7) helps to protect the circuit from these potential catastrophic current spikes.

Power input is controlled by a switch (SI) that is part of the control pot (R10). The actual power can be a small battery capable of supplying up to 3 amps or a 12-volt. 3- to 5-amp converter for 115 uses. Power switch SI must be added to the GRA1 series or you must use other external means to power control.

Construction Steps

This section discusses the construction of the elec­tronic, ion-generating power supply and the lifter craft. The ion generator is built using a printed circuit board (PCB) that is individually available or you may use the more challenging perforated circuit board. The perforated board approach is more complicated, as the component leads must be routed and used as the conductive metal traces. It is suggested that you follow the figures in this section closely and mark the actual holes with a pen before inserting the parts. Start from a corner and proceed from left to right. Note that the perforated board is the preferred

approach for science projects, as the system looks more homemade. The PCB only requires that you identify the particular part and insert it into the respective marked holes. Soldering is then greatly simplified.

Introduction

On a typical day, electronics enable us to turn on the TV or the computer, use the cellular phone, hear the “beeps and blips” of electronic toys and games, have a medical checkup, listen to the news on space explo­ration and world conflicts, even drive our car.

Electronic Gadgets for the Evil Genius presents a "hands-on” approach allowing the electronic enthusi­ast to construct many devices that are not as well known. These “action” projects demonstrate exciting and useful concepts of this diversified field.

Tesla Coils

The spectacular and highly visible effect produced by the Tesla coil has amazed and fascinated people for years. These high-frequency, high-voltage devices pos­sess qualities unlike conventional electricity. Tesla output energy defies most insulation materials; trans­mits energy without wires; produces heat, light, and noise; and harmlessly passes through human tissue, causing virtually no sensation or shocking effect in the person.

Considerable research, money, and effort have been dedicated to the actual construction of similar, large Tesla coil-type devices capable of producing 200-foot lightning bolts and powering lights 25 miles away. Nikola Tesla was the originator of this research, along with countless other contributions to the elec­trical sciences. As more progress was made in these fields, it was soon realized that he indeed was respon­sible for many advances in the development of energy production.

Tesla is finally being credited for his work and is taking his rightful place as a truly great electrical genius in this field. His main theory of wireless energy transmission, however, is still much in ques­tion, and many dedicated groups are hopeful in obtaining some breakthrough that will resurrect it. The Tesla coil is the basis for much of this interesting research and still amazes all who come in contact with this visual and audible effect.

Plasma Devices

Electrical plasma can be anything from a simple elec­tric arc from a welder to a complex entity of closed – drcuit, toroidal flowing currents such as ball lightning. A nuclear explosion produces a plasma; the sun and a simple fire are forms of plasma. Plasma guns may be the weapons of the future, and plasma propulsion may power spacecraft to near the speed of light. Plasma confinement may be a key to fusion energy, and rotating plasma fields may hold the secrets to levitation devices such as hover boards.

Gas displays using energized plasma can also provide spectacular visual effects.

Lasers

Lasers first appeared in the early sixties as a crys­talline rod of aluminum oxide (ruby) placed within a helical flash tube. A high-powered flash of light caused a stimulated emission of a powerful light pulse within the ruby rod, capable of punching holes in the hardest of metals. Since then, the laser (an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emis­sion of radiation) has been a part of our lives from laser printers and recorders to complicated eye sur­gery and mega-power-directed beams of energy pro­tecting us from a potential missile attack. To the experimenter, the laser possesses an almost magical property due to its ability to transport energy over a distance.

Lasers are classified in relation to their power out­put and are closely regulated and labeled:

• Class 2 lasers can produce up to 1 milliwatt of optical power. Some popular applications include alignment, intrusion alarms, and point – to-point communications. Even though this class of lasers has the lowest power, a Class 2 laser pointing in your direction can appear as the brightest object at distances over 10 miles.

• Class 3a lasers can produce up to 5 milliwatts. Some applications include laser pointers, gun sights, disc readers, holography, small light shows, and other visual effects.

• Class 3b lasers can produce up to 500 milli­watts and are used for printing, disk burning, range finding, target designation, and night vision illumination to name a few applications.

• Class 4 lasers have unlimited power output. They are the workhorses of the group, with the capability to work with many materials from the hardest of metals to simple wood engraving. Class 4 laser surgery now provides a precision never before thought possible, and eye surgery for cataract removal is now sworn by all who have it done, High-power light shows similar to those at Walt Disney World use Class 4 optical lasers. Bluish-green lasers easily penetrate seawater because of compati­ble colors allowing covert point-to-point com­munications. By penetrating seawater for submarine communications, the concentration of energy into a micro-sized area opens up high-temperature and fusion research. Pro­jecting energy over great distances can power powering interplanetary spacecraft. The inte­gration of multiple micro-sized plasma explo­sions may provide the magical levitating vehicles often depicted as spacecraft. Also, weapons that use directed beam energies into the megajoules in battles against aircraft, ground vehicles, and other difficult targets are now possible. Antipersonal weapons designed to neutralize and disable personel use ener­gies into the kilojoules using timed, pulsed laser diodes have kill ranges well in excess of one mile and are backpackable. These systems are lightweight and require complex optical conditioning.

Many high-powered lasers use carbon dioxide as the laser’s medium. These devices are efficient, trans­mit through air, and are easy to build. They can be made to generate continuous power output into the tens of thousands of watts. An experimenter that can easily build this type of laser that will burn and cut many materials Lasers can be are pulsed, obtaining enormous peak powers into the gigawatts. This power is not to be confused with energy, as the power pulses last for fractions of a second, whereas energy must be integrated over a 1-second period. A true measure of pulsed laser energy is by its output in joules.

Research in the field of lasers still remains very fertile with many new and exciting developments still yet to come.

Ultrasonics

The field of ultrasonics remains a relative gray area with few available hobbyist-level projects. Ultrasonic energy is produced by a piezoelectric or magne – tostrictive transducer powered by a signal generator. Ultrasonics can be used for cleaning where a solvent transmits these vibrations dislodging unwanted mate­rials and dirt. Plastic materials can be welded or cut by rapid vibrations, causing frictional heating. Acoustical ultrasonics is often used for discouraging animals against intruding into a certain area. It is also used for range finding and can be an excellent intru­sion detection device.

High-sound-pressure, acoustical energy is very inefficient, owing to the physics of energy transfer between two surfaces of dissimilar densities. Standing waves impede this energy coupling and make it diffi­cult to obtain high-decibel output. Energy transfer between two surfaces is optimized when both materi­als have like densities, which is why sound travels bet­ter through water. Air is many times less dense than a liquid and its lack of density therefore offers a greater challenge to the researcher in overcoming the problem of successful energy transfer. Nevertheless, sonic transducers are effectively used with horns and other means to vibrate as much air as possible.

The effects of high-sound-pressure sonic energy can provide an excellent low-liability deterrent to unauthorized intrusion. A vertical wall of pain can be

generated, causing nausea, dizziness, and extreme paranoia, which usually discourages the intrusion. No after-effects are produced once out of the field. How­ever, sound pressure levels exceeding 140 decibels per minute can be harmful and should be avoided.

Listening to low-level ultrasonic sounds can be interesting to a nature enthusiast. Many insects and mammals emit sounds well out of human hearing range. Many man-made devices, such as rotating machinery, generate high-frequency sound and enable the detection of leaking air, water, or leaking electricity in the form of corona usually indicating a potential fault. Thus, directional ultrasonic listening can be a valuable tool.

Electrokinetics

The properties of magnets have long fascinated man since the discovery of lodestones by the ancient Greeks centuries ago. Even in today’s advanced tech­nology, the ability to attract and repel magnetized objects still remains a mystery. Magnetism, in spite of its mysterious properties, is perhaps the most impor­tant force known to man. Without the knowledge of how to use magnets, everyday motors, transformers, communications, and most forms of transportation would be next to impossible. Electricity generation would not exist.

The Star Wars defense initiative has opened up many doors to the potential use of this technology. Electrokinetically launching objects at hyperveloci­ties much like the effect of a meteor shower will cre­ate a destructive barrier to incoming ballistic missiles. The propelling of radioactive waste and many other materials safely into outer space, the potential levita­tion of terrestrial vehicles, and of course projectile – type weapons are other applications.

Even though magnetic properties do not give way to variances, they do manifest properties in different forms. Motors use magnets to produce rotating mechanical energy from electricity and, of course, the opposite where generators use magnets and rotating energy to produce electrical power. Transformers take advantage of changing magnetic fields as a func­tion of time, whereas relays and solenoids produce linear motion.

Electrokinetic accelerators utilize magnetic forces where a conducting and movable armature is placed between two parallel conducting rails. A force is now produced in the armature as a result of the interac­tive magnetic fields occurring around the armature and the current-carrying rails. Remember a current – carrying conductor produces a proportional magnetic field, which is basic high school physics.

Those who are familiar with vectors will recall the Lorentz JXB forces where a force is produced between a current-carrying conductor (the armature) and the magnetic В field produced in the rails. Accel­eration of the armature occurs over the entire length of the rails and can reach unheard of velocities com­pared to chemical combustion.

Even though pulsed magnetics is not new, little information exists to provide a "hands-on” approach for the hobbyist or experimenter. Positive interest exists in this field for using this technology as a viable potential for the previously mentioned applications, as well as the nonevasive use of shockwaves in break­ing up kidney and gallstones. Even a form of “mag­netic destructors” is intended for use in robot wars and contests.

We therefore feel a “how-to” book demonstrating projects for the serious electronic and mechanical experimenter, as well as for technical interest groups, will prove to be popular. The projects here will fall within the realms of both the amateur and the serious experimenter. All the projects will contain a briefing of mathematical theory for those interested, along with a simple explanation of the operation. Individual chapters will have headings suggesting the required competence and experience of the reader, as well as any hazards that may be encountered. All the con­struction projects will also contain a full bill of mate­rials with sources necessary to complete the device as described.

Rcknouuledgments

I wish to express thanks to the employees of Infor­mation Unlimited and Scientific Systems Research Laboratories for making these projects possible.

Their contributions range from many helpful ideas to actual prototype assembly. Special thanks go out to department heads Rick Upham, general manager in charge of the lab and shop and layout designer;

Sheryl Upham, order processing and control; Joyce Krar, accounting and administration; Walter Koschen, advertising and system administrator; Chris Upham, electrical assembly department; Al (Big Al) Watts, fabrication department; Sharon Gordon, outside assembly; and all the technicians, assemblers, and general helpers at our facilities in New Hampshire, Florida, and Hong Kong that have made these endeavors possible.

Also not to be forgotten is my wife Lucy, who has contributed so much with her support and under­standing of my absence due to long hours in front of the computer necessary for preparing this manu­script.

I wish to acknowledge the contributions, including the front cover material, of Durlin Cox of Resonance Research in Baraboo, Wisconsin. Resonance Research is a supplier of large, museum-quality, elec­trical display devices.

My gratitude goes to Tim Ventura of American Gravities and his contributions to the lifter craft tech­nology found in Chapter 1 “Antigravity Project.”

Finally, I would like to thank Zarir Sholapura of Zeonics and his contributions to high-voltage and high-energy research.

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Special Notes

General Information

All projects in this book have been built and tested in our laboratories at Information Unlimited/Scientific Systems. The gadgets perform as described. Builders having difficulties may contact our technical help department.

Part Sources

Most parts are readily available through electronic supply houses, electrical supply houses, and hard­ware/builder supply outlets. Certain specialized and proprietary parts such as transformers, capacitors, printed circuit boards (PCB), tooled fabrication, and optical parts are manufactured in our shops. They are indicated with database numbers on the parts list and must be obtained by email or through our web site at www. amazingl. com. Without these special items, many of these projects would not be possible. Advanced builders may attempt substitution with the risk of reduced performance or failure.

Safety

Several projects are noted as being dangerous electri­cally, kinetically, and optically. Such projects must not be attempted unless the builder is experienced in his or her related field. Safety is stressed with all neces­sary compliances required for the trade.

Labeling is shown as required if the finished prod­uct is being offered to the trade. Labels are available and should be used if your project is to be exposed or demonstrated to the public.

Unfortunately, many scientific devices must use dangerous parameters to properly produce the desired target effects.

Printed Circuit Boards

Some projects are shown using PCB. They may also be built on vector or circuit boards. Attempt to follow the layout as shown when transposing component locations and wire routing.

Project Origins

Some of the devices shown are fall-out technology acquired from our project contracts as performed for the government and other related agencies. Others are the result of our own research efforts. We are con­stantly engaged in research for the trade and in many interesting research and development programs.

Other Available Options

Most of the projects are available as partial or com­plete kits and may be laboratory assembled upon request.

Our offshore assembly operation can competi­tively supply all types of specialty transformers, coils, and power supplies in volume for the trade.

Our engineering services specialize in high-voltage power supplies, shock and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) pulsers, Marx impulse generators, and all related components.

Contact Us

Information Unlimited Phone Number: 603-673-6493 Fax Number: 603-672-5406 Web site: www. amazingl. com Email: riannini@metro2000.net