Augmented Proportional Guidance (APNG)

Advanced guidance laws reduce acceleration requirements and miss distance but require more information (e. g., time — to-go and missile-target range) (19). In an attempt to take into account a constant target acceleration maneuver at, guidance engineers developed augmented proportional guidance (APNG). For APNG, the commanded acceleration is given by

acA PNG(t) = NVcX(t) + — Nat = acpng(0 + ^ Nat (15)

for stability robustness which implies that the guidance-control-seeker bandwidth bandwidth ю must be small when Vm is small, (R!, N, Vc) are large, or юа is small (high altitude and low missile speed V ).


From the above, it follows that we require the guidance — control-seeker bandwidth ю to satisfy






or acAPNG(t) = N( 2 ), where ZEM = y + ytgo + — attgo is

^go. 2

the associated zero effort miss distance. Equation (15) shows that APNG is essentially PNG with an extra term to account for the maneuvering target. For this guidance law,





acPNGmax — ["

N — 2

larger maximum acceleration but less acceleration than PNG for t > 0.2632tf. As a result, APNG is more fuel effi­cient for exoatmospheric applications than PNG. Finally, it should be noted that APNG minimizes Jjf a2c(T)dT subject to zero miss distance, linear dynamics, and constant target acceleration (8).

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