In 2016, private consumers of heat in Ukraine receive the heat from the following sources:
- The most common one is electricity, which means electric boilers, electric fireplaces and heaters of different kinds. Skipping some details, in most cases the ultimate source is hydropower. Possible sources are nuclear power and thermal power stations. For the most of final consumers, the distributing functions are performed by HCS (Housing and Communal Services companies) or companies of “Region-Town-Energo” type. At the beginning of 2016 the cost of “elektroheating” is about 1 UAH/kW.
To take into account getting the heat directly to the consumer’s apartment, house, or other compartment, to the cost of heat generation we will add amortized cost of the equipment, such as cost per hour based on the “25 years of the equipment running”. In this example we get 1 kW/h via ceramic heating plate 1200 UAH of cost. It serves at least 25 years, which means 25х365х24 = 219000 hours, or “amortized cost per hour” of 1200/219000 = 0,0054 UAH, i.e. it is inessential.
- This item probably should be the first, but I gave it up in favor of the previous one (that is why, perhaps, I write so subjectively). Anyway, the TEPLOKOMUNENERGO company offers heating for 1000 UAH for 50 sq. meters, regardless to the exact month of the heating season. To my apartment TEPLOKOMUNENERGO gave about 1 kW/h, or 1x24x30 = 720 kW/month, so I paid about 1,5 UAH/kW. For three months of the heating season, 1kW usually was not enough, for the remaining three months – too much… But that depends on the weather.
- Gas heating. It is 7,2 UAH/cbm, a cubic meter of gas produces about 10 kW, hence about 0,72 UAH/kW! It looks like gas even competes with electricity! Equipment in case of ordinary gas stove is immaterial. If you install a gas boiler and gas heating – well, let’s say the expenses will add another 10 percent – let it be 0,8 UAH/kW. The efficiency of a regular gas boiler is 85%, a condensing one – 95%, so, considering efficiency, the figures are the same as when heating by electricity. But, as in Ukraine a lot of consumers receive electricity at lower prices than 1 UAH/kW, plus “panic of recent years caused by political situation” – it is reported increasingly often of consumers giving up gas heating in favor of electricity or solid fuel.
- Elektroheating with heat pumps, with “30% of electricity consumption”. For example, if you install a heat pump for 100 square meters and spend 219 000 UAH on installation (it is easier to count that way), then it is 0,2 UAH more for each 1kW just in amortized cost (I think you need 5 kW/h for every 100 sq. meters, so we divide 219,000 to 219,000 hours and to 5). But the cost per kilowatt is reduced to 0,3 UAH or 0,3 UAH + 0,2 UAH (amortized cost) = 0,5 UAH/kW. Obviously, the cheapest and most comfortable heating today is possible to arrange with heat pumps or expensive air conditioners (which is virtually the same thing).
Expansion of heat generation by heat pumps is limited because of the high cost of equipment.
- Solid fuel boilers or wood boilers. You need to burn 0.3 kg of wood to get 1 kW of heat. The average cost of timber today is 3000 UAH for 3000kg, or 1 UAH/kg.
0,3 UAH for 1 kW of heat – well, it’s competitive! The equipment costs are usually insignificant, if you do not strive for high efficiency and don’t try to invent some pyrolysis long burning boilers… But it is for a reason that I wrote about electricity (with or without heat pumps) as the most convenient, and therefore most expanding type of heating! Wood-burning boilers are not for lazy people, but for romantics, for people who are willing to throw wood into fire instead of fitness workouts. Or there can be a boiler station for large number of consumers, with a stoker – the idea is taking place when considering ecology, because the burning of wood and wood waste will not produce any harmful emissions.
- Heating with solar collectors. To solve at least 70% heating of 100 square meter by solar collector and get 5 kW/h in the sun you need to install a solar collecting system of 500 vacuum tubes 1800mm at 58mm. That’s $ 10000 worth of equipment, including heat accumulator (night and “non-solar” heat accumulation), and other related equipment. It is possible that in sunny weather, these 500 tubes will get 100% (let there be a better prognosis to facilitate failures). We have just 0,2 UAH/kW of amortized cost (219000 UAH for equipment divided by 219000 hours of operation and 5 kW). It seems like there are no more expenses – pumps for water or coolant pumping are insignificant (though in different schemes of taking heat from 500 pipes the cost may be essential). But you need to place these 500 tubes somewhere, as well as the heat accumulator, and there still is the most important thing – like in heat pumps – the start-up expenses! Also, the systems with solar concentrators may be regarded as solar heating systems – and they take even a few times larger area, than the 500 tubes, but are several times cheaper – you may found a lot of offers from different inventors on YouTube on installation of solar concentrators and heating thereof. Though solar heating is the cheapest and most advantageous, it is not expanding widely because of the initial cost and large area required for installing the equipment.
- Solar power generation, followed by the use of “photoelectricity” for heating. It is different from the preceding paragraph in the way of lower efficiency, but better convenience. http://msd.com.ua/solnechnaya-energetika/solnechnaya-energetika-v-ukraine-2015-2016-goda/ – here you can read more about this idea and the way of its realization. Let’s try and count the expenses through an example of a 10kW solar power plant, such as this one in the Kirovograd region., Video:
Averagely, such solar photovoltaic power plant gives 1200 kW per month of electricity, its cost with the installation is about $ 20000, or 500000 UAH, amortized cost of 1kW = 1,4 UAH.
In the case of feed-in tariff it is much more profitable to sell this 1kW “to the State” for 4 UAH, and get the heat for your house from other sources, so with the feed-in tariff the idea of obtaining heat from solar electric power is meaningless.
In today’s Ukraine the most profitable and convenient way to heat your premises is by electricity purchased “from the state”. Wood heating, if a consumer is willing to increase his “romantic time spending” is more profitable than electricity – but more troublesome. Gas heating remains convenient and profitable at the time – in this matter, as they say, every man to his own taste… If you already have gas heating, there is no point in giving it up, if you are facing a dilemma – you can think… Heat pumps and air conditioning also mean heating with electricity, but with three times less consumption, and, with the possible growth of the economy and the “wealth of consumers”, it is the most promising type of heating!
Let us admit that pets are inevitable part of the family. However, in comparison with human members of the family we give them much less attention than they deserve. We usually see and interact with them in the morning and in the evening, and the rest of the time they are alone. Of course, when there are several pets in the family, they can interact with each other so they do not feel too lonely.
Caring owners always think how to entertain their pets while they are not at home. Some people hire dog walkers to exercise their dogs or ask neighboring kids to take care of their pets when they go to work. Others prefer to use professional services that look after pets, like kennels, pet boards or pet sitters. But some owners have no possibility to take an advantage of such help because their pets do not like strangers or they are afraid of them. Some pets feel really uncomfortable close to other animals, so in kennels they feel stressed.
All that house animals need is love, attention and exercise. And you can give it to them even when you are not at home! Petcube is a perfect way to entertain yourself and your pet without efforts and you will definite receive maximum positive!
What is Petcube? It is an interactive pet monitor with help of which you will be able to communicate and play with your pet. Take pictures and record videos of your pets and do not forget to share them with your friends. Moreover, you can even share access to your Petcube to all your friends, family and anyone from Petcube network!
This camera also has a microphone and a speaker so you will be able to speak with your pet and he will hear your voice also. Hearing your voice will make your pet happy and thus your connection will become stronger.
And here is the most exciting part – Petcube camera has a laser in it and everybody knows how animals love to play with laser! You can exercise your dog or cat without being home! Bring into notice that you have nothing to worry about – this laser is absolutely safe for animals with no damage to their sight.
There are even more additional features that you might find really handy:
- Sound alerts. You will get notification via your smartphone about any loud sound in your house.
- Motion detection. You will know when your pet is active and willing to play. Especially useful for cat owners as cats like to sleep most of the day.
- Auto play mode – create automatic laser movement routine so your pet can play with laser without your assistance.
Numerous requests have been made for information on the effect of these devices on people.
None of these devices have the ability to stop a person with the same effect as a gun, club, or more conventional weapon. They will, however, produce an extremely uncomfortable, irritating, and sometimes painful effect in most people. Not everyone will experience this effect to the same degree. As stated, young women are much more affcctcd than older men due to being more acoustically sensitive. The range of the
Figure 28-9 Controls and hookup instructions
devices depends on many variables and is normally somewhere between 10 and 100 feet from the transducers.
One possible use of the device (that deserves careful consideration) is for all Ihe transducers to protect
an area from unauthorized intrusion. This approach is excellent for protecting target areas such as jewelry boxes, gun cabinets, and safes and vaults. Normal use is to place each transducer to cover a given area.
Table 28-1 Phaser pain field property guard parts
Ref. # Qty. Description DB#
R1,6.8,18.104.22.168 7 IK, 7-i-watt resistor (br-blk-red)
R2/S2 500K pot and switch
R3 2.2K,1 Л-wait resistor (red-rcd-red)
R4.5 2 10K.’/-i-walt resistor (br-blk-or)
R7 10-ohm. ‘Л-watt resistor (br-blk-blk)
R9/S1 10K pot and switch
RIO 5 К trimmer resistor
R11 470-ohm, ‘/4-watt resistor (yel-pur-br) Ohms
R13.14. t5.16 4 .47-ohm, 3-watt resistor ^yel-pur-sil)
R17A and В 120-ohm, 1-watl resistor (br-rcd-br)
R22,23.24 З 39K. ‘/«-watt resistor (or-wh-or)
Cl,4 2 .01 mfd, 50-voU disc capacitor
C? 10 mfd. 25-volt electrolytic capacitor
C? 100 mfd. 25-volt electrolytic capacitor
C5 .033 mfd, 50-volt polyester capacitor
C6 1000 mfd, 25-vol (electrolytic capacitor
C9 22 mfd, 250-volt polypropylene capacitor
CIO, 11 2 .1 mfd. 50-volt polyester capacitor
LlAandB 2 1-millihenry .25-amp inductor 1U1MH
L2 1 – mil lihenry choke (see Figure 28-8) 1UIMF1PPC
ICt.2 2 555 DIP timer 1C
IC3 4001 Norgate complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Dl P lC
1C4 4044 inverter/buffer CMOS dual in-line packagc integrated circuit
1 PN2907 GP PNP transisiOT
2 IRF540 power MOSFET T0220
Dl, 2,3 3 1N914 silicon diodes
LED Light-emilling diode
TD1,2,3.4 4 Polarized high-output ceramic transducers 1UMOTRAN
S4,5 2 Momentary pushbutton switches
J1.2,3,6 4 RCA chassis mount phono jacks
Pt. 2.3.6 4 RCA phono mating phono plugs
DCJ ACK 2.1 -millimeter DC jack
FI Fuse holder panel mount
LEDRET LED retainer hushing
Ref. # Qty. Description DB#
PC’PPPl PCB IUPCSONIC
PBl Alternate 2- X З-inch. l-inch grid perforated vector board
HS1 Heatsink bracket fabricated as shown
SWI/NU1 6-32 x 3/a-inch screw and nut for HS1 attaching to Q2
SW2 4 #6 X 3/K-inch sheet metal screw for cover
FEE Г 4 /г-inch stick-on rubber feel
CHASSIS Metal chassis fabricated as shown
COVER Plastic cover to fit chassis
 Rotate R8/S2 about 30 degrees CW and note that the voltage reaches a higher value before deactivating.
 Place the unit in a brightly lit area and connect it to a 12-volt power supply or wall adapter. Point the unit to a light source and then place your hand over the aperture. The
 Fabricate the base section, BASE, from а З X З X .063 aluminum plate and drill a hole to mount the heat sink of Ql, a small hole for SW2 to mount the BK1 bracket, and a 3/*-inch clearance hole for the BUI bushing. Trial-fit
Your phaser property guard system is capable ot operating in two modes. Mode 1 is at a frequency known to produce paranoia, nausea, disorientation, and many other physiological effects. Mode 2 enables you to use the system as an audible alarm to frighten off intruders or warn the user. Both modes can be
used in combination and are easily front-panel-con – trolled by the user. Three separate jacks enable the detection of a broken trip wire or contact foil, a pressure or actuating switch, and a positive voltage-level pulse obtained from other detection equipment such as those listed in the Information Unlimited catalog.
Figure 2B-8 Final assembly
The position of the transducers should be set to direct as much energy as possible to the points of intrusion or access. They can be directed ю any target area or be individually placed for multiple effects.
The power unit should be placed where the user can reset the device and preset the controls for maximum effcct. Figure 28-9 shows the connections to the rear panel.
R ULIord of Caution
Ultrasonic is a gray area in many respects when an application involves the control of animals or even a deterrent to unauthorized intrusion. It is always best to consult with local, municipal, and state laws before using this device to protect your home or property. Remember that many state laws lean more toward the right of the criminal rather than the victim.
The detection circuits consist of inputs Jl, J2, and J3, which sense an intrusion and energize P5, enabling timer IC2. A reset switch (S4) enables the circuit to be reset. A test switch (S5) enables the verification of system operation. Detection circuit functioning, along with the appropriate jack identification, is shown in Figure 28-3.
To begin assembling the project, follow these steps:
1. Lay out and identify all the parts and pieces to the assembly board (see Figure 28-4), sense board (refer to Figure 28-3), and the remaining parts for the final assembly.
2. Assemble inductor LI as shown later in Figure 28-8. Drill a small hole in the bobbin for the stan of the winding and wrap 50 turns of #24 magnet-enameled wire tightly and evenly along the bobbin length. Tape the winding in place and allow 2 inches for both the “start” and ‘‘finish’* leads. Assemble everything as shown, inserting core halves into the bobbin, and place the air gap spacers between them
Figure 28-3 Defection circuit schematic
These spacers can be from a cut-up business card. You should attempt to find a thickness of 3 mils (.003) and confirm with vernier calipers. Tape the assembly together or use elastics, О-rings, and so on. The finished inductor should read approximately 1 millihenry when measured on an inductance capacitance bridge.
3. Create the heatsink bracket HS1 from a.75 X 2 X .0625 aluminum piece. Bend it 90 degrees in the middle and drill a hole for the SW1/NU1 screw and nut, as shown later in Figure 28-8.
4. Assemble the PCB as shown in Figure 28-4. Note the polarity of all the diodes, transistors, integrated circuit, and electrolytic capacitors. Note the two wire jumps. Be careful of the solder bridges on the PCB foil as these can cause damage to circuit components. Attach approximately 6 inches of wire leads to the front and rear panel-mounted components per Figures 28-4 and 28-5. Note that most resistors are vertically mounted. Always leave at least a ’/iб-inch lead between the body of the component and the board.
Experienced builders may use a piece of.1- tnch grid perforated vector board. Use Figure 28-4 for parts location and the schematic for the connections. Certain leads of the actual components will be used for connecting points and circuit runs. Do not cut or trim them at this time. It is best to temporarily fold the leads over to secure the individual parts from falling out of the board holes. If you obtain a PCB, you may omit this step. Figure 28-6 shows the foil layout.
5. Assemble a sense board from a piece of 2 lU – X 1 72-inch of Л-inch grid perforated board per Figure 28-7.
Insert the components into the board holes as shown. Certain leads are used for connecting points and circuit runs. Do not cut anything at this time. Fold over the leads to secure the parts in place.
Please read the following before doing any soldering:
a. Components are mounted both horizontally and vertically. Leave at least l/in of an inch between the part and the board surface.
Figure 28-4 Printed circuit board (PCB) wiring first level
b. Verify the polarity of ІСЗ, IC4, D1, D2, and D3.
Use a good, pencil-type soldering iron, keeping the tip tinned and cleaned. Use rosin core solder. Do not overheat the solder joint as you may damage a component. All the connections should be smooth and shiny. Avoid excess solder.
Wire as shown, using the dashed lines as the circuit runs.
6. Attach the wire leads to the related front and rear panel components as shown.
Connect the interconnecting leads with the circuit board (see Figure 28-4) for P2. AUX12V, and P5, SHUTDOWN.
Note that most of these interconnecting leads are approximately 6 inches in length
7. Wire L2A. L2B, R17A, and R17B to the rear of transducers TD1 through 4, as shown in Figure 28-8. Note securing the two-conductor speaker leads is, done via a small nylon clamp.
8. Check the wiring for accuracy, correct components, the quality of the solder joints, short circuits, foil shorts on the circuit board, pinched wires, and debris.
To complete the assembly, follow these steps:
1. Fabricate the chassis from a piece of 6- x 7- x .063-inch aluminum, as shown in Figure 28-8. Bend up 1 ‘/2-inch sections for the front and rear panels. Then bend up ‘/2-inch flanges to mount the cover via four sheet metal screws (SW2).The location ot most ot the mounting holes is not critical and may be “eyeballed.”
However, the holes for R2 and R9 should be measured to match the PCI PCB pads.
Figure 28-5 PCB wiring second level
2. Fabricate the cover from a piece of 8V2 – x 5- X Vi6-ineh-thick plastic or aluminum. Form it to fit over the chassis and secure it via mating holes for the SW2 serews.
3. Fabricate a 44л – X 3’/2-inch piece of plastic or cardboard insulating material for placement between the circuit boards and the metal chassis.
4. Finally, assemble the circuit boards and the panel-mounted components to the chassis as shown in Figures 28-4 and 28-5. Twist the leads and dress as shown. Use a small piece of sticky tape to hold them in place.
Testing the device can be done by following these steps:
1. Insert a 1 – amp fuse into Fl, connect a shorting plug into J3, as shown in Figure 28-9, preset controls to full counterclockwise (CCW), and click “off.”
2. Apply 12 volts to the DC jack from a bench supply. You may useTl or a 1-amp wall adapter if a supply is not available.
3. Connect a scope to pin 3 of IC2. Turn on R9 and note a square wave, as shown in Figure 28-2. Rotate R9 a full clockwise (CW) turn
Figure 28-Б View offoil routing and pad location
Testing Detector-Sensing Circuit
To test the detector circuit, follow these steps:
1. Momentarily press S4 (RESET) and the unit shuts down. Press S5 (TEST) and the unit turns on. Repeat this action several times to verify proper operation.
2. With the unit in the reset mode, temporarily remove the shorting plug from J3 and note the unit turning on.
3. In the reset mode, temporarily short J2 to
and adjust RIO for a period of 50 microseconds (usee). This sels Ihe high-frequency range to 20 kHz.
Obtain hearing protection for the next steps.
4. Temporarily connect the four-transducer assemblies in parallel and connect to J6.Tum RIO a full CCW turn and note a piercing, shrill, and uncomfortable shriek. Adjust RIO CW and note the pitch increasing to an upper – frequency limit.
5. Turn on R2 and note the frequency of the shriek periodically changing. Adjust and note a sweeping action varying from very slow all the way lo a chirping sound.
ground and note the unit turning on.
Figure 28-7 Sense board layout and wiring
Still in Ihe reset mode, temporarily connect a 5-volt level to J1 and note ihe unit turning on.
The transducers used in this system are piezoelectric and consequently are many times more efficient than the electromagnetic type. Several operational curves and charts are available and intended for those who may want to modify or optimize the existing circuitry tor a particular range of frequencies, beam spread, and placement.