In 2016, private consumers of heat in Ukraine receive the heat from the following sources:
- The most common one is electricity, which means electric boilers, electric fireplaces and heaters of different kinds. Skipping some details, in most cases the ultimate source is hydropower. Possible sources are nuclear power and thermal power stations. For the most of final consumers, the distributing functions are performed by HCS (Housing and Communal Services companies) or companies of “Region-Town-Energo” type. At the beginning of 2016 the cost of “elektroheating” is about 1 UAH/kW.
To take into account getting the heat directly to the consumer’s apartment, house, or other compartment, to the cost of heat generation we will add amortized cost of the equipment, such as cost per hour based on the “25 years of the equipment running”. In this example we get 1 kW/h via ceramic heating plate 1200 UAH of cost. It serves at least 25 years, which means 25х365х24 = 219000 hours, or “amortized cost per hour” of 1200/219000 = 0,0054 UAH, i.e. it is inessential.
- This item probably should be the first, but I gave it up in favor of the previous one (that is why, perhaps, I write so subjectively). Anyway, the TEPLOKOMUNENERGO company offers heating for 1000 UAH for 50 sq. meters, regardless to the exact month of the heating season. To my apartment TEPLOKOMUNENERGO gave about 1 kW/h, or 1x24x30 = 720 kW/month, so I paid about 1,5 UAH/kW. For three months of the heating season, 1kW usually was not enough, for the remaining three months – too much… But that depends on the weather.
- Gas heating. It is 7,2 UAH/cbm, a cubic meter of gas produces about 10 kW, hence about 0,72 UAH/kW! It looks like gas even competes with electricity! Equipment in case of ordinary gas stove is immaterial. If you install a gas boiler and gas heating – well, let’s say the expenses will add another 10 percent – let it be 0,8 UAH/kW. The efficiency of a regular gas boiler is 85%, a condensing one – 95%, so, considering efficiency, the figures are the same as when heating by electricity. But, as in Ukraine a lot of consumers receive electricity at lower prices than 1 UAH/kW, plus “panic of recent years caused by political situation” – it is reported increasingly often of consumers giving up gas heating in favor of electricity or solid fuel.
- Elektroheating with heat pumps, with “30% of electricity consumption”. For example, if you install a heat pump for 100 square meters and spend 219 000 UAH on installation (it is easier to count that way), then it is 0,2 UAH more for each 1kW just in amortized cost (I think you need 5 kW/h for every 100 sq. meters, so we divide 219,000 to 219,000 hours and to 5). But the cost per kilowatt is reduced to 0,3 UAH or 0,3 UAH + 0,2 UAH (amortized cost) = 0,5 UAH/kW. Obviously, the cheapest and most comfortable heating today is possible to arrange with heat pumps or expensive air conditioners (which is virtually the same thing).
Expansion of heat generation by heat pumps is limited because of the high cost of equipment.
- Solid fuel boilers or wood boilers. You need to burn 0.3 kg of wood to get 1 kW of heat. The average cost of timber today is 3000 UAH for 3000kg, or 1 UAH/kg.
0,3 UAH for 1 kW of heat – well, it’s competitive! The equipment costs are usually insignificant, if you do not strive for high efficiency and don’t try to invent some pyrolysis long burning boilers… But it is for a reason that I wrote about electricity (with or without heat pumps) as the most convenient, and therefore most expanding type of heating! Wood-burning boilers are not for lazy people, but for romantics, for people who are willing to throw wood into fire instead of fitness workouts. Or there can be a boiler station for large number of consumers, with a stoker – the idea is taking place when considering ecology, because the burning of wood and wood waste will not produce any harmful emissions.
- Heating with solar collectors. To solve at least 70% heating of 100 square meter by solar collector and get 5 kW/h in the sun you need to install a solar collecting system of 500 vacuum tubes 1800mm at 58mm. That’s $ 10000 worth of equipment, including heat accumulator (night and “non-solar” heat accumulation), and other related equipment. It is possible that in sunny weather, these 500 tubes will get 100% (let there be a better prognosis to facilitate failures). We have just 0,2 UAH/kW of amortized cost (219000 UAH for equipment divided by 219000 hours of operation and 5 kW). It seems like there are no more expenses – pumps for water or coolant pumping are insignificant (though in different schemes of taking heat from 500 pipes the cost may be essential). But you need to place these 500 tubes somewhere, as well as the heat accumulator, and there still is the most important thing – like in heat pumps – the start-up expenses! Also, the systems with solar concentrators may be regarded as solar heating systems – and they take even a few times larger area, than the 500 tubes, but are several times cheaper – you may found a lot of offers from different inventors on YouTube on installation of solar concentrators and heating thereof. Though solar heating is the cheapest and most advantageous, it is not expanding widely because of the initial cost and large area required for installing the equipment.
- Solar power generation, followed by the use of “photoelectricity” for heating. It is different from the preceding paragraph in the way of lower efficiency, but better convenience. http://msd.com.ua/solnechnaya-energetika/solnechnaya-energetika-v-ukraine-2015-2016-goda/ – here you can read more about this idea and the way of its realization. Let’s try and count the expenses through an example of a 10kW solar power plant, such as this one in the Kirovograd region., Video:
Averagely, such solar photovoltaic power plant gives 1200 kW per month of electricity, its cost with the installation is about $ 20000, or 500000 UAH, amortized cost of 1kW = 1,4 UAH.
In the case of feed-in tariff it is much more profitable to sell this 1kW “to the State” for 4 UAH, and get the heat for your house from other sources, so with the feed-in tariff the idea of obtaining heat from solar electric power is meaningless.
In today’s Ukraine the most profitable and convenient way to heat your premises is by electricity purchased “from the state”. Wood heating, if a consumer is willing to increase his “romantic time spending” is more profitable than electricity – but more troublesome. Gas heating remains convenient and profitable at the time – in this matter, as they say, every man to his own taste… If you already have gas heating, there is no point in giving it up, if you are facing a dilemma – you can think… Heat pumps and air conditioning also mean heating with electricity, but with three times less consumption, and, with the possible growth of the economy and the “wealth of consumers”, it is the most promising type of heating!
For first-time visitors, a casino can be a confusing place. They are huge and feature rooms full of people
who seem to know what they are doing. Your every move is watched by cameras on the ceiling and all
the dealers, security guards and pit bosses seem to be doing pretty much the same thing.
However, what’s even worse is there are no guides or announcements to convey the rules of behavior
to newcomers. And one important rule which needs to be emphasized is regarding the prohibition of
using electronic items and devices within the casino premises. Why aren’t they allowed though?
electronic items, such as mobile phones, are frowned upon in casinos as they can be used for unethical
purposes, where a person from the outside guides them to making every move. And, quite clearly,
cheating is against the rules of casinos.
With the incidences of cheating on the rise, casinos found a way to counteract this issue by completely
prohibiting the use of any electronic item that can be used for cheating. From cameras to cell phones
and even selfie sticks, gamblers aren’t allowed to bring along any of the prohibited electronics to
There are, however, electronic items which are allowed in casinos. Personal cameras that easily fit into
your pocket are allowed. Even cell phones, but on silent, and they cannot be used to make videos or
photos. As far as the gaming rules go, you can get a good idea about them by playing casino games
is a great place to find sites to play casino games. You will also find software
reviews and casino news which can be of use. www.backgammon-guru.com is an ideal place to learn
backgammon. So, what is the conclusion here? It’s simple: avoid taking electronic items with you to a
casino and learn a bit about the different games on offer so you can improve your chances of winning!
Let us admit that pets are inevitable part of the family. However, in comparison with human members of the family we give them much less attention than they deserve. We usually see and interact with them in the morning and in the evening, and the rest of the time they are alone. Of course, when there are several pets in the family, they can interact with each other so they do not feel too lonely.
Caring owners always think how to entertain their pets while they are not at home. Some people hire dog walkers to exercise their dogs or ask neighboring kids to take care of their pets when they go to work. Others prefer to use professional services that look after pets, like kennels, pet boards or pet sitters. But some owners have no possibility to take an advantage of such help because their pets do not like strangers or they are afraid of them. Some pets feel really uncomfortable close to other animals, so in kennels they feel stressed.
All that house animals need is love, attention and exercise. And you can give it to them even when you are not at home! Petcube is a perfect way to entertain yourself and your pet without efforts and you will definite receive maximum positive!
What is Petcube? It is an interactive pet monitor with help of which you will be able to communicate and play with your pet. Take pictures and record videos of your pets and do not forget to share them with your friends. Moreover, you can even share access to your Petcube to all your friends, family and anyone from Petcube network!
This camera also has a microphone and a speaker so you will be able to speak with your pet and he will hear your voice also. Hearing your voice will make your pet happy and thus your connection will become stronger.
And here is the most exciting part – Petcube camera has a laser in it and everybody knows how animals love to play with laser! You can exercise your dog or cat without being home! Bring into notice that you have nothing to worry about – this laser is absolutely safe for animals with no damage to their sight.
There are even more additional features that you might find really handy:
- Sound alerts. You will get notification via your smartphone about any loud sound in your house.
- Motion detection. You will know when your pet is active and willing to play. Especially useful for cat owners as cats like to sleep most of the day.
- Auto play mode – create automatic laser movement routine so your pet can play with laser without your assistance.
Numerous requests have been made for information on the effect of these devices on people.
None of these devices have the ability to stop a person with the same effect as a gun, club, or more conventional weapon. They will, however, produce an extremely uncomfortable, irritating, and sometimes painful effect in most people. Not everyone will experience this effect to the same degree. As stated, young women are much more affcctcd than older men due to being more acoustically sensitive. The range of the
Figure 28-9 Controls and hookup instructions
devices depends on many variables and is normally somewhere between 10 and 100 feet from the transducers.
One possible use of the device (that deserves careful consideration) is for all Ihe transducers to protect
an area from unauthorized intrusion. This approach is excellent for protecting target areas such as jewelry boxes, gun cabinets, and safes and vaults. Normal use is to place each transducer to cover a given area.
Table 28-1 Phaser pain field property guard parts
Ref. # Qty. Description DB#
R1,6.8,18.104.22.168 7 IK, 7-i-watt resistor (br-blk-red)
R2/S2 500K pot and switch
R3 2.2K,1 Л-wait resistor (red-rcd-red)
R4.5 2 10K.’/-i-walt resistor (br-blk-or)
R7 10-ohm. ‘Л-watt resistor (br-blk-blk)
R9/S1 10K pot and switch
RIO 5 К trimmer resistor
R11 470-ohm, ‘/4-watt resistor (yel-pur-br) Ohms
R13.14. t5.16 4 .47-ohm, 3-watt resistor ^yel-pur-sil)
R17A and В 120-ohm, 1-watl resistor (br-rcd-br)
R22,23.24 З 39K. ‘/«-watt resistor (or-wh-or)
Cl,4 2 .01 mfd, 50-voU disc capacitor
C? 10 mfd. 25-volt electrolytic capacitor
C? 100 mfd. 25-volt electrolytic capacitor
C5 .033 mfd, 50-volt polyester capacitor
C6 1000 mfd, 25-vol (electrolytic capacitor
C9 22 mfd, 250-volt polypropylene capacitor
CIO, 11 2 .1 mfd. 50-volt polyester capacitor
LlAandB 2 1-millihenry .25-amp inductor 1U1MH
L2 1 – mil lihenry choke (see Figure 28-8) 1UIMF1PPC
ICt.2 2 555 DIP timer 1C
IC3 4001 Norgate complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Dl P lC
1C4 4044 inverter/buffer CMOS dual in-line packagc integrated circuit
1 PN2907 GP PNP transisiOT
2 IRF540 power MOSFET T0220
Dl, 2,3 3 1N914 silicon diodes
LED Light-emilling diode
TD1,2,3.4 4 Polarized high-output ceramic transducers 1UMOTRAN
S4,5 2 Momentary pushbutton switches
J1.2,3,6 4 RCA chassis mount phono jacks
Pt. 2.3.6 4 RCA phono mating phono plugs
DCJ ACK 2.1 -millimeter DC jack
FI Fuse holder panel mount
LEDRET LED retainer hushing
Ref. # Qty. Description DB#
PC’PPPl PCB IUPCSONIC
PBl Alternate 2- X З-inch. l-inch grid perforated vector board
HS1 Heatsink bracket fabricated as shown
SWI/NU1 6-32 x 3/a-inch screw and nut for HS1 attaching to Q2
SW2 4 #6 X 3/K-inch sheet metal screw for cover
FEE Г 4 /г-inch stick-on rubber feel
CHASSIS Metal chassis fabricated as shown
COVER Plastic cover to fit chassis
 Rotate R8/S2 about 30 degrees CW and note that the voltage reaches a higher value before deactivating.
 Place the unit in a brightly lit area and connect it to a 12-volt power supply or wall adapter. Point the unit to a light source and then place your hand over the aperture. The
 Fabricate the base section, BASE, from а З X З X .063 aluminum plate and drill a hole to mount the heat sink of Ql, a small hole for SW2 to mount the BK1 bracket, and a 3/*-inch clearance hole for the BUI bushing. Trial-fit
Your phaser property guard system is capable ot operating in two modes. Mode 1 is at a frequency known to produce paranoia, nausea, disorientation, and many other physiological effects. Mode 2 enables you to use the system as an audible alarm to frighten off intruders or warn the user. Both modes can be
used in combination and are easily front-panel-con – trolled by the user. Three separate jacks enable the detection of a broken trip wire or contact foil, a pressure or actuating switch, and a positive voltage-level pulse obtained from other detection equipment such as those listed in the Information Unlimited catalog.
Figure 2B-8 Final assembly
The position of the transducers should be set to direct as much energy as possible to the points of intrusion or access. They can be directed ю any target area or be individually placed for multiple effects.
The power unit should be placed where the user can reset the device and preset the controls for maximum effcct. Figure 28-9 shows the connections to the rear panel.
R ULIord of Caution
Ultrasonic is a gray area in many respects when an application involves the control of animals or even a deterrent to unauthorized intrusion. It is always best to consult with local, municipal, and state laws before using this device to protect your home or property. Remember that many state laws lean more toward the right of the criminal rather than the victim.